Process of working computer
Hey, There Every One I Hope you are doing well, so in today’s blog, we look at how the computer works from a superficial level to top level.
First What is the computer? What is a Computer machine?
A computer is a machine that performs tasks and calculations based on a set of instructions or program operations.
Electronic computers introduced in the 1940s, and they were huge machines that required a team of individuals to operate.
In contrast to early computer systems, today’s computers are vastly smaller and amazingly powerful. Not only are they thousands of times faster, but they are small enough to fit on your desk, on your lap, or even in a pocket.
In a nutshell, computers work through an interaction of physical hardware components and software instructions. Hardware is the actual physical parts of a computer that you can see with your eyes or touch with your hands.
Software is a collection of code that makes up a computer program. The hardware, in turn, carries out instructions by a computer program on a sophisticated level using electricity.
When talking about computers, the most critical piece of hardware is a chip inside your computer called the central processing unit, or in short, a CPU. The microprocessor is also a ubiquitous term used. Think of it as the “brain” of your computer. Like your brain, it can translate instructions and perform calculations.
Other hardware items such as a monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, video card, sound card, or other physical piece are often called hardware devices or even just devices for short.
When looking at software, it is the actual instructions or programs that tell the hardware components what to do. Without software, the hardware is mostly useless. A computer game, word processing program, or Internet browser are some common types of computer software.
Of course, the essential piece of software for a computer system is the operating system or also commonly called just the OS for short. It is responsible for managing your entire computer and all the devices connected to it. Popular operating systems include Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OSX, and Linux, among others.
Computer Working process.
The electricity never turns into binary, in the same way, the beads of an abacus turn into numbers; the idea that there is computation happening is in your mind, and as long as the little physical tokens manipulated according to the rules, we reason about them as if they were numbers.
Automatic operation, computers resemble those cuckoo-clockworks where a small mechanical bird pops out and tweets the hour now and again. At its heart, there is a spring or some other thing that exerts controlled force overtime. As a side effect of what it is, it is set up to drive gears, which move the hands and trigger the mechanical bird at appropriate times.
Software, by analogy, is how we can use this thing to tell time – the gears themselves know nothing about what time it is, and the bird is just a beautiful user interface to make the machine look a little more alive. Clocks aren’t usually very interactive but could be made so, say, by putting a lock on the little door, to disconnect the bird-related submachine for when you want it to be quiet or something.
Computers work (almost) just like this, everything you see is a side-effect of a clock ticking away. The state of all the gears is so much more complicated than it is easy to lose track of the clockwork(s) at the bottom, but they are there, and they drive the whole fancy circus of side-effects that we see, utterly oblivious to the understanding that there is something called “a program”.
Software is all in your head, but with the complexity under the hood, it quickly becomes necessary to discuss transistor voltages and currents as if they were the same thing as the ideas of binary numbers they are placeholders. Without thinking about it in terms of simplifying abstract ideas, nobody would have the capacity to handle it all.
A computer is a programmable electronic device capable of receiving instructions in the form of data input and performing them. It is capable of retrieving, storing, and processing data. It is devised using hardware that only responds to electrical signals, which are translated as 1s and 0s or true and false respectively on a fundamental level. These signals are what make up the software of the computer.
The predetermined sequences of these signals made into a package of data that would allow the hardware to respond to produce a specific outcome to a specific input to the computer. Therefore, the software drives the hardware to work toward the functions mentioned above, which are retrieval storage and processing of data. These specific packages of signals are what termed as instruction sets.
The hardware of the computer is what is physically visible while the software is the invisible entity of the computer that makes the hardware work that way it has to for the whole system to work as a computer. The hardware of the computer divided into input and output devices and the processor. The processor is the piece of hardware that makes the computer run the way it has to while the rest serve as an interface between the user and the computer. For the software to be programmable and serve for multiple purposes, the hardware to be wired to be programmable by software.
The hardware that makes the most of the computer is the processor or the central processing unit of the computer, which shortly termed as the CPU. The central processor is made up of putting together still smaller pieces of hardware, which termed as the memory unit, arithmetic and logical unit, and the control unit.
The memory in terms of computers can be categorized as internal memory, external memory, and cache memory. Each serves a different purpose. As the names suggest, the internal memory is the memory that is available for the computer to use freely and these are available in the central processing unit in the form of registers whose primary components are flip-flops and the external memory is the memory that makes it possible for the user to transfer data between devices. It is available for the user to use in the form of external memory devices such as the CD, DVD and the flash drive, etc. The cache memory, on the other hand, though internal to the central processing unit is made available only for the processing of instructions rather than storage, serving the purpose of making efficient use of memory.
The arithmetic and logical unit is the part of the central processing unit that tasked with the computation and processing of data. This component of the CPU does all the mathematical calculations that we make using the computer. Not only this, but it is also responsible for computing the logical decisions that are made by the computer in the processing of data and performing its functions.
The control unit is the main component that is responsible for all the decision making. The computer works the way it does solely because of the control signals that this unit sends to each of the units of the computer. This unit coordinates every piece of the hardware to work as a single unit that is the computer that we use.
Any typical computer’s central processing unit has about four main functions which are data movement, data processing, and data storage and finally control. The units mentioned above of CPU perform one or more of these functions. The memory unit is responsible for storage and movement; the arithmetic and logical unit are responsible for processing data, and the control unit is responsible for controlling all of these functions.
The working of the computer can be discerned in the following manner. Suppose the user gives some instruction, let’s assume that it’s a simple mathematical calculation. The user inputs the instruction into the computer physically by using one of the input devices, which is usually the keyboard. The computer gives the output through one of the output devices, usually the screen of the monitor. Between inputting of the instruction and the output display of the result by the monitor, there are a series of things that are carried out in a specific sequence in the central processing unit.
The computer receives the input via an application, which is a piece of software that coverts this instruction of the user into a machine-understandable code. This is done when the control unit fetches this instruction and from memory via the system bus. This instruction to be then decoded by the control unit and is placed back again on the system bus for it to moved to the memory.
The control unit then issues instructions for the decoded data to place in the athematic and logical unit from memory. Once the processing is done, the processed data resulting from the input is again placed on the system bus for the data to be stored back into memory. The control unit eventually directs memory to release the result to an output device or a secondary storage device.
The fetching and decoding of the instruction are called an instruction cycle, and the processing and storing of data and then outputting is termed an execution cycle. The combination of Instruction time and Execution time is called the machine cycle. Each central processing unit has an internal clock that produces pulses at a fixed rate to synchronize all computer operations.
A single machine-cycle instruction may be made up of a substantial number of sub-instructions, each of which must take at least one clock cycle. Each type of central processing unit is designed to understand a specific group of instructions called the instruction set. Just as there are many different languages that people understand, so each different type of CPU has an instruction set it understands. Therefore, one CPU-such as the one for a Compaq personal computer-cannot understands the instruction set from another CPU-say, for a Macintosh.
An address identifies the location in memory for each instruction and each piece of data. That is, each location has an address number, like the mailboxes in front of an apartment house. And, like the mailboxes, the address numbers of the locations remain the same, but the contents (instructions and data) of the locations may change.
That is, new instructions or new data may be placed in the locations when the old contents no longer need to be stored in memory. Unlike a mailbox, however, a memory location can hold only a fixed amount of data; an address can hold only a fixed number of bytes – often two bytes in a modern computer. A program manipulates data in memory. A payroll program, for example, may give instructions to put the rate of pay in location 3 and the number of hours worked in location 6.
To compute the employee’s salary, then instructions tell the computer to multiply the data in location 3 by the data in location 6 and move the result to location 8. The choice of locations is arbitrary – any locations that are not already spoken for can be used. Programmers using programming languages, however, do not have to worry about the actual address numbers, because each data address is referred to by a name. The name is called a symbolic address. In this example, the symbolic address names are Rate, Hours, and Salary.
All data are passing through the computer as nothing more than pulses of electricity; the machine recognizes two states: with charge and without charge. We often represent these two states with two digits, “1” and “0” respectively. (This reverses the historical representation: logical models of computing devices used binary logic previous to the actual construction of electromechanical or purely electrical machines.)
This also the origin of the term “bit” and by extension, “byte.” One bit of information is one switch, one 1 or 0, one “place”; eight bits is one byte. So our keyboards and our computers communicate via electricity, and mathematicians and logicians have developed methods for translating the language (symbols) and many thought processes into binary code.
The most pertinent example for our purposes is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). The ASCII character set maps the 256 most popular characters to binary equivalents, a unique string of eight digits. This also the origin of the byte as a measurement of storage capacity, as one byte of information is sufficient for representing any character in the ASCII set.
Thus, ASCII translates the Western alphabet into code that can be transmitted as pulses of electricity. While you type into your e-mail client, the characters are stored as bit strings, as sequences of 1s and 0s. Let us return to our example, “Hi!”; in binary code: 101000 1101001 0100001. Standards-based e-mail clients and terminals understand all characters as bit strings, and it is bit strings that are transmitted from the keyboard to the computer.
When we use the word “storage,” we usually mean hard drives, floppy disks, or other relatively permanent but slow means of storing data. There are four major types of internal storage in modern computers, listed in order of decreasing speed and cost: registers, cache, random access memory (RAM), and hard disk drives (HDD). Registers and cache are located in the CPU or on the motherboard and come in relatively small amounts, say 512 MB (megabytes). In contrast, hard drives often have 80 GB (gigabytes) of storage for a fraction of the cost of the cache.